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Why Referencing?
- Shows that your work is based on knowledge or is trustworthy
- Avoid plagiarism
- Allows to refer to the original source
Three ways of quoting
1. Direct quotation
2. Extensive quotation: using the whole paragraph
3. Paraphrase or Summarize: using my own words. Paraphrase as long as the actual text but summarize main points and shorter
- According to
- Referring to
- Based on
- Reveals
Our reference system
Author's last name, first name (2016): Title. publication location. publisher.
Footnote and Bibliography
In a footnote you can put any additional information like referencing and if you are using another language and have to translate it you should mention it in the footnote that it is a translation and also add by whom.
Footnote System
- First time, full entry (author, date of publication, title of source, place of publication and publisher, the exact page(s) of the source)
- Next time, short entry. E.g: Bransford 2000, p. 150.
What if we do not have a date of publication?
Any website you use you have to write the date when you retrieved your information from this specific website or write (n.d) that means no date
What if we do not have an author?
write the name of the institution, when there is no author’s name mentioned
United Nations (2014) …
University Bonn (2015) …
Two or more names/ authors
1. If you have more than two names: et al.
Johnson, Maria, et. al.
2. If you have just two names: Johnson, Maria ; (or and) Laguna, Maria.
One author with two texts of the same year:
- we have to differentiate it like this:

Johnson (1999 a)
Johnson (1999 b)
1. ibid. (ibidem)
ibid., p. 7.
use it if you are referring to the same Source, which you used already; it should be the same author, same book, and same page.
Using it will save you a lot of time

2. loc. at. (loco citato) (in the place cited)
when you want to show your readers that you are referring to the same work that you’ve already used before

3. op. cit (opere citato) The work previously cited. referring to the whole work but it’s not exact where in this work
Example: Hudson, op. cit, p.28.
(Scientific Principles)
From general to specific. A general principle applied to specific cases.
From specific to general. A specific observation applied to a larger group.
Scientific Approach

- a tentative explanation that accounts for
a set of facts and can be tested by further
- A guide for future research
Theoretical Approach
develops and verifies hypothesis on the
basis of literature and theoretical findings
Empirical Approach
research is based on experimentation or
observation (evidence)
Quality Criteria
- Objectivity: research can be tested independently from individual scientists.
- Reliability: Consistency of measurement. degree of accuracy.
- Validity
- Completeness
- Clearness: unambiguous
- Systematic: structure - follow it
Reasons for academic referencing
1. Give credit to the first authors
2. Respect
3.. Avoid misleading the readers
Types of Academic Sources

"The sources determine the quality of your work"
Evaluate the academic source, ask all the questions
- Primary: original scientific work. Basis for follow up research.
- Secondary: interpretations / explanations of original work.
- Tertiary: summary / references of primary, secondary or even tertiary work (encyclopedia, dictionary, handbook)
+ Empirical data: interviews. primary
1. FIND a suitable topic/Theorie when writing a paper
2. DEFINE topic
3. Formulate it as a QUESTION: how blogs covered the war in Mali on 2013?
4. RESEARCH: evaluate the sources
5. STRUCTURE: clear ideas, logical
Types of Academic asignments
- Essay: opinion
- Presentations
- Seminar or term paper (Hausarbeit) given topic 10 to 15 pages
- Bachelor Thesis 20 pages
- Master thesis. 80 to 100
- Dissertation (doctoral)
- Habilitation (Professorship) in Germany
Types of Academic Material
Academic texts:
Bibliographies: list of academic material
Scientific journals
Press archives
Other texts: e.g. working papers, conference papers
General format of academic work

Table of contents
Title page
List of figures and tables
List of abbreviations
Table of contents

Overall structure
Background chapters
Account of own work
(research question, hypotheses, method)
I. Introduction

*INtro and conclusion must be complementary
-background of study
-aim and scope
-overview of study
to offer broader context
to present specific / CURRENT problem
to introduce methodological approach
II. Conclusion

- Closing, not more quotes
-summary of main findings (shows we have read a lot)
-practical implications of the findings
-suggestions for further research
Important Aspects:
responds to the aim stated in introduction
brings main points together
needs to be persuasive and well written
no further discussion
III. Summary
It contains only the most important points of the original source
IV. Paraphrase
Closely follows information in original text, must be entirely your own words.

At the end of the day the text must be different keeping the author's ideas.

Steps: 1. Re-write a given Paragraph:
- change word class (substantive into adjective) synonym.
- Change word order (sentence structure)
2. Integrate paraphrase into your text
3. Acknowledge original source
V. Elements of style

Academic writing can be:
- clear and consistent - logical
- relevant - objective
- in present tense - active voice
- Avoid 1st or 3rd person. The author believes (neutral)
- Complete forms and transition words/sentences (flow)
1) To show a time relationship: - Finally the authors come to the conclusion.....

2) To add an idea or example: - For example - For instance.

3) To show contrast: - On the contrary; - On the other hand (Despite of)

4) To show comparison: - Similar to; - likewise.

5) To show cause-effects relations: as a result of media system it leads to.

6) To show conclusions: - In summary it can be said that

7) To clarify: in other words (explain something more complex in other words). Put it in another way.
VI. What is an excerpt?
- Comes from the latin extract.
- a small part of a longer written work
- purpose: structure of arguments becomes more transparent
- more than a summary
1) Systematic research: time intensive

2) Snow ball: from footnotes / list of references or bibliography to discover new literature resources
Conducting a literature research
- Construct a research statement. From a vague topic to a specific questions

- Select forms of literature

- Choose research instruments: electronic library, online databases, electronic journals, websites

- Identify research locations: university, library, faculty library, bookshop, archive, on-line data base, copies at home.
Citation of on-line sources
James, Mary (2014): How to write a Master Thesis. Longman, [online source: pdf-document]. www....., accesed on 4 January 2016.

No name:
Engagement Globla, (2015), [online source: FB-page], www....., accesed on 7 march 2016.
Evaluating sources
- currency
- relevance (importance)
- authority (sources of information)
- accuracy: reliable, corrected done
- purpose (reason why information exists)
Effective reading techniques
1. Cursory: go fast over books to get what i need

2. Selective: read a couple of chapters of the book

3. Intensive: page by page
Adopt critical attitude towards a text and always ASK QUESTIONS
What are the key ideas?
- Does the argument develop logically?
- Are the given examples helpful?
- Does the author have any bias?
- Is the argument similar to anything else you
have read?
a) summary
b) paraphrase
c) quotation
Statement = states that something is the case

Argument = demonstrates how or why it is the case
Always edit your own work:

1. Form: spelling, grammar, punctuation,
sentence structure, word choice,
forms of expression

2. Content:
- strong thesis statement
- specific supporting details
- coherence and logic
- effective conclusion
- any repetitions
- use of quotes

Organizing the body of the text:
- each paragraph discusses a new point
- each paragraph has specific supporting
- each paragraph has unity
- each paragraph has coherence
- no sentences are “off the topic”
Literature Review
(1) Content:
- What is already known about the topic?
- Has anyone else ever done exactly the same research?
- Has anyone else done anything that is related?
- Where does your work fit in with what has done before?
- Why is your research important in the context of what has already been done?

(2) Possible Structure:
chronologically (by date of study)
by school of thought / theory / definition
by theme
by hypotheses
by case study
by method

Preparing the Search:
- concentrate on the focus of the topic to make
the search more precise
- focus on those studies that are relevant for defining your research problem
Writing a Expose
The exposé should show that you …
have a clear research question
can argue its relevance
know academic/scientific debates related to your work
are able to identify theoretical concepts for your topic
address research question in a sound methodological way
are realistic about the time you need
know what you expect from this piece of academic work
have researched relevant literature
Expose Elements
Cover page
-Working title (preliminary)
-State of research (related studies)
-Problem statement (researchable problem, benefits)
-Research question(s) (what do you want to find out?)
-Theoretical framework (definitions, concepts, theories)
-Research design and methodology
-Structure (draft outline)
-Preliminary literature list