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Definition of Editorial Management
1. The successful application of economic thinking on editorial work

There is no clear definition but the most important thing about editorial management is the connection between the editorial product and economic thinking.
What is a publicist
A publicist focusses on journalistic work and the content not that much on the economic dimension.
What is a manager?
The manager supervises the employees and makes sure that the editorial department works succesfully. His main focus is supervising and coordinating.
What is a editorial manager?
An editorial manager has expertise in journalistic work but does not need to be the best journalist among all employees. The editorial manager has as well economic expertise. He coordinates, is interested in profit maximization and growth. In tendency the economic competencies are more important.
Do publicists still exist?
The era of publicists finished in Germany in the 1970s. There had been many publicists who had the chance to influence the public opinion. E.g. Rudolf Augstein. "Spiegel magazin as the gun of democracy" had a lot of influence due to the high circulation. Today Media Houses are highly influential but not singular persons: high competition and cost pressure opened more choices and alternatives to the audience.
Journalistic Quality vs. Economic stability
Today journalistic quality and reputation does not suffice to ensure economical survival any longer. Competition and economical pressure have risen. The higher competition leads to:
- product diversification
- synergy with others
- restructuring of enterprises
- more marketing
- new forms of funding
Development of editorial management
- 50 years ago newspapers earned so much that economic planning was unnecessary
- A lot of investment in content
- Editors in chief turned from independent journalistic heads into part of the company's executive board
- Today journalistic and managerial skills are equivalent requirements for success
Tasks of editorial management
1) Cost Management
2) Editorial Marketing
3) Quality Management
4) Technical Management
5) Human Resource Management
Es sind fünf Faktoren! Klausurrelevant!!'
Cost Management
Cost Management should guarantee to make profit and be competitive. The highest cost factor are the salaries for the workforce. Equipment, licenses, permissions, travel expenses.

It is necessary to have not too many employees, and not so few that it effects the quality.

- Benchmarking about salaries
- more freelancers than fixed contracts
- Production price for one minute to compare departments
- Kennzahlen um operatives Controlling zu ermöglichen
Editorial Marketing
Main goal: Costumer loyality and gaining new costumers

Price, Place, Promotion, Product (see Marketing semester 2)

Unique selling proposition

Market orientation:
Gain a specific position for the product, find a niche (E.g. Apple computer)

Growth orientation:
Through marketing and research and development improve market position (improve develop computer -> ipad)

Future orientation
Create something new (Apple iwatch)
Quality Management
To do everything to fullfil the requirements of the producers and the needs of the target group.

Total quality management = Holistic approach, all levels, very systematic
Technical Management
To provide the adequate equipment for journalists.
Human Resource Management
Recruitment, Training, motivation ... (See semester 2)
Lack of cost management
Makes the company dependent on others, burden of credits, costs cannot be covered any longer, no investments, not competitive, layoffs necessary
Lack of editorial marketing
Growth gets nearly impossible, loss of reputation, difficult to gain new costumers
Lack of quality management
Loose costumers without knowing why, loss of trust, loss of reputation
Lack of Technical Management
Effects the quality of the product
Lack of Human Resource Management
Not enough and not the right personnel. Not well briefed and motivated persons.
Which are the most important key aspects of editorial management?
The most important aspects are cost management and Human resource management.
Why is an optimal workflow important?
- Efficiency
- Cheaper Production
- HR= a good workflow makes it possible to react to illnesses of employees
- regular and punctual publication
- Good labour division
- Meet audience expectations
- Journalistiv quality requires organizational framework conditions
Conflict of priorities of editorial work
The different levels which influence editorial management
Structural level
Functional level
Goal level

Everything starts with the goal level
Structural level
Editorial board (Chefredaktion) and management should work together

Sometimes the editor in chief is as well a manager
Functional level
- Editorial organization
- HR recruitment / development
- Financial Planning/ Cost control
- Editorial Marketing
Goal level
Journalistic quality and market success
Organization of objectives
Not only overall organizational goals but as well every department has objectives
Case study Freie Presse Chemnitz
1) Please evaluate the five year plan
2) Which problems can occur with such a form of research division? Which concrete alternatives would you suggest in order to optimize the organization
3) Which quality criteria would you suggest. How would you control and implement the process?
Some answers to the case study
1) Process too long, too expensive, too many personnel needed, 2-3 years would be enough

In comparison the planning phase was too short

Mistakes in the development and planning phase. When failure happens we need to go inofficially back to the planning phase. Admitting mistakes is not normal.

2) Experts for research? No one can be an expert after one months. There might occur problems with the working schedules. Conflicts between divisional groups and departments cam come up.

Positive --> everyone is involved
German model
German journalists are able to deal with research, production and presentation of the journalistic product.
Journalisten in Deutschland sind Generalisten.
US model
In the US model journalists have very specialized tasks. E.g. One person controls the text and facts, another person is researching, one editing...
Centralized model
pros and cons
- Cheaper, less experts needed
- Very important for small companies
- Responsible for one product from beginning to end (motivation factor)

Problems: Lack of time for fact checking, no cross divisional cooperation, lack of time for investigation
Decentralized model
- Very big companies
- Job rotation possible
- Positions are filled based on capabilities
- More efficient at each production phase
- Cost and time saving
- Time and staff for background research
- Quality control

- no individual responsibility and ownership
Aim of newsrooms
- Overcome divisional boundaries
- Flexible placement of topics
- Resources for research
- Publication as a Whole
- Crossmedia production
Jobs of a newsroom manager
- Development of ideas and visions
- Re-structuring (Change management)
- Investing in technology and staff
Definition of change management
Change management is the goal-oriented analysis, planning, implementation, evaluation and continious development of comprehensive change measures in companies.
Characteristics of Change Management
- Holistic perspective of change management
- Not limited to single urgent problem areas
- Simultaneously considering key action fields
Reaction to change
1/3 For change
1/3 Against change
1/3 Neutral Observers

All people react differently. There are winners and losers for change.
Types of change
- Starting point: Change is a permanent challenge
- Nature of change: Unplanned and planned change
- Extent of change: First order change (gradual change) second order change (radical change)

Planned and purposeful change is essential for the company's long-term success
Phases of a change process
Unfreezing Phase: explain that there is a need for change (involve employees in discussions, build change teams)

Changing: Implement the actual changing

Freezing: Experience gaining concerning the change. Use time to make change permanent
Importance of the phases of change
Unfreezing phase: important for motivation, workflow, atmosphere

Freezing phase: Test out the change and let it last. It takes time to gain routine.
Four categories of Approaches of Change Management
1) Lean Approaches
2) Reeingineering Approaches
3) QM Approaches
4) Strategic Approaches
Lean Approaches
- Lean management
- Lean production
- Japanese way or toyotism

Basic Principles: Holistic alignment of the management and the organization to the value chain

Works with outsourcing you do not need those who are not part of the production process.
Reengineering Approaches
- Business Reengineering
- Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

- Radical and hierarchical oriented models
- No longterm and continious improvement, but fast and fundamental redesign
- External consultants play an important role.

Employees are not invved. There is no unfreezing phase. It aims at cost-cutting. Outside consultants are used as they are judging neutral and fast.
Strategic Approach
Network organization
Modular organization

- Disintegration of classical organization
- connection between all stakeholders
- Decentrelization and increasing flexibility
Causes for organizational transformation
Market pressure, competition, changing values, megatrends (e.g Internet)

Internal: mistakes of the past, revision of corporate strategy, new management concepts, organization members (new board members)
Definition of Resistance to organizational change
Resistance can be understood as mental barriers, which are actively or passively expressed as rejections torwards changes.

Kant: Any change makes me anxious!
Typical attitudes torward organizational change
Visioners and Missioners: Change is the right decision. Very rational people.

Active believers: "I am supporting the protagonist. It needs to be right."

Opportunists: sehr devote Haltung, focussing on own chances

Wait and see: neutral

Resistance fighters: say okay but secretly fighting against it

Open opponents: give open and clear arguments why the change is wrong

Emigrants: leave the company cause of change
Causes of resistance
The more successfull a company is thr more difficult it gets to apply change.

Barriers: Economical success (idea of: Never change a runnning system)
People as an obstacle
Causes of internal barriers
- Disharmony between goal and value system
- No correlation between problem understanding and the problem solution
- insufficient level of information
- Missing trust in initiator
- No active participation of affected people
Ideas to overcome resistance
- Integration of employees in change process
- highlight benefits of change
- Try to avoid surprises
- Raise awareness for the real reasons of change
- build trust
- Focus on entire organization
- Provide training
- Report constantly
- considering employees who work since many years for the company as they are often opinion leaders
- protect people who will be negatively affected by the change
- Allow mistakes
- Use experts
Success factors for organizational change
- Clear Vision
- Clear goals
- Broad employee participation
-Integrative Approach
- Introduction of cultural change
- Top management commitment
Failur factors for organizational change
- unclear Vision
- no understanding of problem
- lack of communication
- partial attempt of optimization
- no courage
Consequences for the practice of change management
Needs to be in balance. You need to have a creative and systematic approach
Direct Leadership
Direct superior = gives orders
Indirect Leadership
CEO. Leads heads of departments, no direct influence on employees
The concept of leadership
Optimizing the relationship between executive manager and employee in order to integrate business and individual objectives.

Objective: To influence the employee's behaviour in order to achieve the best possible output.
What makes a good leader?
- Balanced between rational and emotional
- Ability to evaluate the big picture
- Act fair / be neutral
- Repectful/ confidential
- Delegate (Planning/Organizing)
- Motivate
- Be persuasive
- Ability to make decisions
- Analytical thinking
- Expertise
- Solve conflicts
- identify with company
- Praises
- Challanges status quo
- Gives feedback
Steps of delegation
WHAT should be delegated?
WHO should take over the task?
WHEN should the task be done?
HOW should the task be fullfilled?
WHY should the task be carried out?
Es sind Fünf Schritte, W-Fragen
Criteria of well-thought-out feedback
Own perception
Objective, not personal
Descriptive, not judgemental
Very Concrete
Leader Characteristics/ Leader DNA
1. Drive and passion
2. Desire to lead
3. Integraty
4. Self Confidence
5. Intelligence
6. Job relevant knowledge
What should be delegated?
- Tasks that soneone could do better than me
- Tasks outside my job profile
- "administrative tasks"/ those which are not central to a managers role
- tasks which are urgent but which have no priority
Role of a leader
- Create a vision
- Build teams
- allocate teams
- Educate people
- Motivate followers
- Make decisions
-Clarity ...
Path to good leadership
Personality development
Self leadership
Social competence
Definition of management styles
A management style is a typical, recurring behaviour of a manager.
Arib und Bughin management styles
Inspirational-charismatic-hands on style:

leader trys to inspire, is visionary, motivates and trys to improve employees

Structured-performance oriented style:

Systematic and Objective approach, permanent and strong control